LASIK - Amaris Plus - Tecnología Alemana - Clínica de Ojos de Tijuana
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Tel: 664 634 0080 desde EUA: 1 858 866 9295 informes@clinicadeojosdetijuana.com

La Miopia, también denominada vista corta es una condición donde la luz atraviesa el ojo y enfocandose por delante de la retina. Esto hace que la imagen lejana aparezca fuera de foco y una imagen cercana en foco. Los oftalmólogos tratan la miopía con el uso de lentes correctivos como los anteojos o lentes de contacto. También se puede realizar una cirugía refractiva para solucionar la miopía de manera permanente.

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Clasificación de la Miopía

Por Causa


Miopía Axial: es atribuida a los elementos refractivos del ojo (tamaño del mismo)

Miopía Refractiva: es atribuida a la curvatura excesiva o aumentada de la cornea.

Miopía por Cambio de Índice de Refracción: es atribuida a la variación del índice de refracción de los medios oculares como sucede con la diabetes.

Por Entidad Clínica

Existen diversas formas de miopía que han sido descritas por su apariencia clínica.

Miopía Simple: es la mas común de las miopías. Se caracteriza por un ojo anormalmente grande para su poder óptico debido a factores genéticos y ambientales.

Miopía Degenerativa: también llamada miopía maligna o patológica. Se caracteriza por cambios marcados en la retina asociado a defectos refractivos muy altos. Estos cambios pueden causar daño a la retina y están asociadas a catarata temprana y glaucoma.

Miopía Nocturna: es una disminución de visión en condiciones de poca luz pero con una visión normal durante el día. Es provocado por aberraciones ópticas que son visibles al dilatarse la pupila por la noche.

Pseudmiopía: visión borrosa en visión lejana causada por un espasmo de músculo ciliar de ojo.

Miopía Inducida: también llamada miopía adquirida que resulta de la exposición a agentes farmacéuticos, niveles de azúcar elevados en sangre o otras anomalías. La bandas de retina utilizadas para la cirugía de retina pueden inducir miopía.

Por Grado

La miopía puede clasificarse por su tamaño.

Leve: una miopía usualmente de -3.00 dioptrías o menos

Moderada: una miopía entre -3.00 y -6.00 dioptrías

Severa: una miopía mayor a -6.00 dioptrías.

Signos y Síntomas La miopía se presenta con visión lejana borrosa pero excelente visión cercana. Al examen ocular se observan nervios ópticos inclinados, hiperpigmentacion de la retina.

Tratamiento

Los anteojos o lentes de contacto y cirugía refractiva son las opciones para tratar los síntomas visuales de la miopía. Sin embargo, la cirugia refractiva con excimer laser o lente faquico es la unica alternativa de correccion permanente.

La cirugía refractiva se recomienda después de la 18 anos de edad cuando se asegure la estabilidad de la miopía, ya que la cirugía corregira la miopía actual no la futura. El tipo de cirugía refractiva dependerá del grado de miopía y las características individuales de cada persona. Para aprender sobres las opciones de cirugía haz clic en los siguientes links:

Cirugia LASIK
Cirugia de Lente Faquico

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Myopia, commonly known as being nearsighted or shortsighted is a condition of the eye where the light that comes in does not directly focus on the retina but in front of it. This causes the image that one sees when looking at a distant object to be out of focus, but in focus when looking at a close object. Eye care professionals most commonly correct myopia through the use of corrective lenses such eyeglasses or contact lenses. It may also be corrected by refractive surgery. The corrective lenses have a negative optical power, which compensates for the excessive positive diopters of the myopic eye.

Myopia, commonly known as being nearsighted or shortsighted is a condition of the eye where the light that comes in does not directly focus on the retina but in front of it. This causes the image that one sees when looking at a distant object to be out of focus, but in focus when looking at a close object.
Eye care professionals most commonly correct myopia through the use of corrective lenses such eyeglasses or contact lenses. It may also be corrected by refractive surgery. The corrective lenses have a negative optical power, which compensates for the excessive positive diopters of the myopic eye.

Signs and symptoms

Myopia presents with blurry distance vision, but generally gives good near vision. In high myopia, even near vision is affected as objects must be extremely close to the eyes to see clearly, and patients cannot read without their glasses prescribed for distance. On fundoscopic examination of the eye, the optic nerve appears to be tilted and an area of white sclera could be seen on next to the disc with a line of hyperpigmentation separating this area from normal retina. The macula will have some retinal pigmentary changes and sometimes will have subretinal hemorrhages. The retina in myopic patients is thin and thorough evaluation of the periphery might show retinal holes and lattice degeneration. In addition, myopic patients might develop choroidal neovascularization in the macula.

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Myopia Classification

By cause

Axial myopia is attributed to an increase in the eye's axial length.
Refractive myopia is attributed to the condition of the refractive elements of the eye.

Curvature myopia is attributed to excessive, or increased, curvature of one or more of the refractive surfaces of the eye, especially the cornea. In those with Cohen Syndrome, myopia appears to result from high corneal and lenticular power.

Index myopia is attributed to variation in the index of refraction of one or more of the ocular media. Elevation of blood-glucose levels can also cause edema (swelling) of the crystalline lens as a result sugar alcohol accumulating in the lens. This edema often causes temporary myopia (nearsightedness).

By Clinical entity

Various forms of myopia have been described by their clinical appearance:

Simple myopia, more common than other types of myopia, is characterized by an eye that is too long for its optical power (which is determined by the cornea or crystalline lens or optically too powerful for its axial length. Both genetic and environmental factors, particularly significant amounts of near work, are thought to contribute to the development of simple myopia.

Degenerative myopia, also known as malignant, pathological, or progressive myopia, is characterized by marked fundus changes, such as posterior staphyloma and associated with a high refractive error and subnormal visual acuity after correction. This form of myopia gets progressively worse over time. Degenerative myopia has been reported as one of the main causes of visual impairment.

Nocturnal myopia, also known as night or twilight myopia, is a condition in which the eye has a greater difficulty seeing in low-illumination areas, even though its daytime vision is normal. Essentially, the eye's far point of an individual's focus varies with the level of light. Night myopia is believed to be caused by pupils dilating to let more light in, which adds aberrations, resulting in becoming more nearsighted. A stronger prescription for myopic night drivers is often needed. Younger people are more likely to be affected by night myopia than the elderly.
Pseudomyopia, the blurring of distance vision brought about by spasm of the ciliary muscle.

Induced myopia, also known as acquired myopia, results from exposure to various pharmaceuticals, increases in glucose levels or other anomalous conditions. The encircling bands used in the repair of retinal detachment may induce myopia by increasing the axial length of the eye.

Index myopia is attributed to variation in the index of refraction of one or more of the ocular media. Cataracts may lead to index myopia.

Form deprivation myopia occurs when the eyesight is deprived by limited illumination and vision range, or the eye is modified with artificial lenses or deprived of clear form vision. In lower vertebrates, this kind of myopia seems to be reversible within short periods of time. Myopia is often induced this way in various animal models to study the pathogenesis and mechanism of myopia development.


Nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) is defined as short-term myopic far point shift immediately following a sustained near visual task. Some authors argue for a link between NITM and the development of permanent myopia.


By Degree

Myopia, which is measured in diopters by the strength or optical power of a corrective lens that focuses distant images on the retina, has also been classified by degree or severity:

Low myopia usually describes myopia of −3.00 diopters or less (i.e. closer to 0.00).
Medium myopia usually describes myopia between −3.00 and −6.00 diopters. Those with moderate amounts of myopia are more likely to have pigment dispersion syndrome or pigmentary glaucoma.
High myopia usually describes myopia of −6.00 or more. People with high myopia are more likely to have retinal detachments and primary open angle glaucoma. They are also more likely to experience floaters, shadow-like shapes that appear singly or in clusters in the field of vision. Roughly 30% of myopes have high myopia.

Treatment

Eyeglasses, contact lenses and refractive surgery the primary options to treat the visual symptoms of those with myopia. Refractive surgery encompasses either excimer laser surgery or phakic lens implantation surgery (ICL).
Glasses work by using optical lenses bringing the image a viewer closer so that it can be focused by their myopic eyes. Changes in eyeglass prescription are common in children and adolescents. The change in eye size tends to stabilize around 18 years of age. Refractive surgery is recommended in patients over the age of 18 years when prescription stability has been demonstrated. The type of refractive surgery will depend on the amount of myopia and the individual characteristics of the eye. To learn more on theses procedures please click on the following links:

LASIK Surgery
Phakic Lens Implantation Surgery

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